Earth or nature provides enough to satisfy needs of every life form, but not their greed. Humans have tendency to accumulate out of fear, that same will not be available in future. Advancement of science is to undestand nature, so that we can use and live with nature. Let us stop working against powerful nature which is damaging our civilization
Mother nature or earth is a perfect host. We, all life forms including microbes, animals and plants are guests. We will be here for some time and disappear. During our stay, earth takes care of us by providing all our needs, including cure for ailments created by us. Mother earth is very kind and bear all our insults. But there is a limit.
As guests, we should be good to other fellow guests, as we all have equal rights to earth resources. Racial, national and geographical boundaries are artificial. No one really own any piece of land. We all are equal to mother earth, who has allowed us to stay. We should not damage the eco system, so that our future generations can also survive.
UN study (year 2010) assessing the impact of the world's biggest companies on environmental damage, predicted that the global economy to decline by 7% by the middle of the century if damage is not stopped. By far the most "damaging" were the utilities, where the $400bn total "cost" was dominated by carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases blamed for global warming, nuclear waste, acid rain and smog precursors, and metal pollution in water. The four sectors with the lowest impact – telecommunications, health care, technology and financial services – all caused environmental damage totaling less than $25bn each. After the utilities, the two sectors with the biggest impacts were "basic materials" such as mining, forestry and chemical companies, with costs put at just over $300bn, and consumer goods such as cars, food, drink and toys, at just under $300bn. The breakdown of their activities is very different however. Industrial companies, including construction, aerospace and electronics, and the oil and gas sector, had the next greatest impacts at, respectively, $200bn and about $175bn. Both their costs were dominated by greenhouse gases, freshwater use, and acid rain and smog pollution. The damage caused by consumer services, including the media, was valued at approximately $75bn, again mostly from greenhouse gases, water and local air pollution.
All these reports, show that it is the global problem, which needs to be solved by every one. The actual damage will be far greater than the figures quoted. Most of the time taxpayers pay for environmental clean-up costs. It will be even difficult to estimate and there are many unknown damages, like future increase in health costs because of environmental issues. We do not know, how many new diseases and health issues have been created. It is difficult to estimate, How much land and water bodies have been lost due to pollution
Disasters can take many different forms, and the duration can range from an hourly disruption to days or weeks of ongoing destruction. A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth. With technological developments and modern war fare, Anthropogenic hazards or human-made hazards can affect whole civilization and the damages may be thousands of times, the natural disasters and have very long term consequences.
- Earthquakes, Sinkholes and landslides
- Volcanic eruptions, Extreme heat, Wildfires and and lighting
- Floods, storms, and Tsunamis
- Damaging Winds, cyclones and tornadoes
- Asteroids impact and Solar flare
- Drought and water shortage
- Agricultural diseases & pests
- Emergency diseases (pandemic influenza)
- Ice ages
- Civil unrest and wars
- Terrorist incidents Riots and stampedes Massacres Mass murder
- Cyber attacks, and biological weapons
- Workplace and man made fires, Deforestation, Explosion
- Hazardous materials, Chemical threat
- Nuclear power plant and nuclear blast
- Radiological emergencies
- Global Warming and weather
- Pollution, groundwater contamination
- Sinkholes and landslides due to mining and construction.
- Transport accidents and Tunnel disasters
- Environmental disasters like Oil Spill
- Human waste and debris
Some of the Activities and Efforts
Many individuals and many groups are dedicated to the work of restoring, preserving and protecting our natural world. Being respectful of environments and communities goes hand in hand, as environmental problems impact people on a broad scale. The National Geographic initiative is a call to action to become actively involved, to learn more and do more—to change how we think about and consume energy so that we can all help tackle the big energy questions.
Some of the other activities are:
- Educating us about how humans impact our natural world and how we can live in more harmony with the ecosystems that support and nourish us.
- Presenting a comprehensive view of the complex relationship between human beings and the whole of nature.
- Without making claims for the moral rights of plants and animals, naturalist offers a reasoned alternative to the prevailing anthropocentric view that the natural environment and its wildlife are valued only as objects for human use or enjoyment.
- Contribute in an organization that concern in nature.
- Support programs such as living green, care about animals, care about forest and many else.
- Contribute in whatever way possible to events that plant trees in forest, save animal from extinction, clean the river, clean the beach. River and beach also habitat for animals such fish, crabs, jellyfish, etc.
- Popularize in internet or social media, on television, radio, news paper programs supporting respect for nature.
Respect and care to nature can start from your self and don't wait other people for do that. Small things that many people can do to show their respect can start from their house as given below:
- Planting trees or green plants in their garden
- Use recycled products, things, not using plastic bags.
- Save energy, by not using too much electrical and other energy consuming gadgets
- Save water .
- Contribute in earth hour, turn off the lights and electronic things in one hour together with many people.
- People can walk to place that's not too far from their place, use bicycle to go not far places
- Use public transportation and use car just for necessary.
- Throw rubbish in the right place, not littering, use less plastic.
The primitive religions and traditions of the Native Americans was based on the culture of Animism. Animism is a religion based on the spiritual idea that the universe, and all natural objects within the universe, have souls or spirits. They all understood importance of nature. The same traditions have been found in other tribes like poynesians, australian aborgines and african natives. Modern science and religions did not understood their wisdom and created all ecological problems.
Ancient India sanctified plants, animals as a recognition of biodiversity. Hindus regard everything around them as pervaded by a subtle divine presence, may it be rivers, mountains, lakes, animals, flora, the mineral world, as well as the stars and planets. Ayurveda, the science of life, which is a complete health and medicine system based on nature and its regenerating forces. Vastu Shastra, is about how to place and build dwellings, according to the environment.
Animism used to denote the worship of spirits and forces of nature as opposed to a conceptual god. All animist and tribal religious beliefs, have been absorbed in Hinduism. India was a land of vast forests, which made a permanent impression on the minds of the people. The people lived in one vast embrace of nature, as one family. Indians believes in ecological responsibility and says like Native Americans that the Earth is our mother.
Bhumi Sukta (Ode to Earth) in the Atharva Veda is a poem, which is universal and not local. The very first verse in the sukta glorifies the values of Sathya and Rita, truth and order. Sacred is the earth (motherland), called Pruthvi in Sanskrit, which nurtures and bears the seed of the future as well. In the Rigveda, Earth and Sky are frequently addressed in the dual. Prithvi also appears in Early Buddhism, where she is mentioned in the Pali Canon. The Theory of bhutas (elements): water, earth, wind, fire and air, provides a cosmic framework which can link up temperament, food, medicine and virtually all phenomena.
Hymn to the Earth (Bhumi-Sukta) in tamil script:
மஹித்வா உபஸ்தே தே தேவ்யதிதே-க்னி-மன்னாத
மன்னாத்யாயாததே ஆயங்கௌ: ப்ருஸ்னிரக்ரமீ தஸனன்
மாதரம் புன: பிதரம் ச ப்ரயந்த்ஸுவ: த்ரி ஸத்தாம விராஜதி வாக்
பதங்காய ஸிஸ்ரியே ப்ரத்யஸ்ய வஹ த்யுபி: அஸ்ய
ப்ராணாதபானத்-யந்தஸ்சரதி ரோசனா வ்யக்யன் மஹிஷ: ஸுவ:
யத்த்வா க்ருத்த: பரோவபமன்யுனா யதவர்த்யா ஸுகல்ப-மக்னே
தத்தவ புனஸ்-த்வோத்தீபயாமஸி யத்தே மன்யு பரோப்தஸ்ய ப்ருதிவீ-
மனுதத்வஸே ஆதித்யா விஸ்வே தத்தேவோ வஸவஸ்ச ஸமாபரன்
மனோஜ்யோதிர்-ஜுஷதா-மாஜ்யம் விஸ்சின்னம் யஜ்ஞ ஸமிமம் ததாது
ப்ருஹஸ்பதிஸ்-தனுதாமிமம் நோ விஸ்வே தேவா இஹ மாதயந்தாம்
மேதினீ தேவீ வஸுந்தரா ஸ்யாத்-வஸுதா தேவீ வாஸவீ
ப்ரஹ்மவர்ச்சஸ: பித்ருணா ஸ்ரோத்ரம் சக்ஷர்மன: தேவீ ஹிரண்ய-
கர்பிணீ தேவீ ப்ரஸோதரீ ரஸனே ஸத்யாயனே ஸீத
ஸமுத்ரவதீ ஸாவித்ரீஹ நோ தேவீ மஹ்யகீ மஹாதரணீ
மஹோர்யதிஸ்த ஸ்ருங்கே ஸ்ருங்கே யஜ்ஞே யஜ்ஞே விபீஷணீ
இந்த்ரபத்னீ வ்யாஜனீ ஸுரஸித இஹ
வாயுபரீ ஜலஸயனீ ஸ்வயந்தாரா ஸத்யந்தோபரி மேதினீ
விஷ்ணு-பத்னீம் மஹீம் தேவீம் மாதவீம் மாதவ-ப்ரியாம்
லக்ஷ்மீம் ப்ரிய-ஸகீம் தேவீம் நமாம் யச்யுத வல்லபாம்
தனுர்தராயை ச வித்மஹே ஸர்வ ஸித்த்யை ச தீமஹி
தந்நோ தரா ப்ரசோதயாத்
இஷு-ஸாலி-யவ-ஸஸ்ய-பலாட்யாம் பாரிஜாத ரு-ஸோபித-மூலே
ஸ்வர்ண ரத்ன மணி மண்டப மத்யே சிந்தயேத் ஸகல-லோக-தரித்ரீம்
ஸ்யாமாம் விசித்ராம் நவரத் பூஷிதாம் சதுர்புஜாம்
துங்கபயோதரான்விதாம் இந்தீவராக்ஷீம் நவஸாலிமஞ்ஜரீம் ஸுகம்
ததானாம் வஸுதாம் பஜாமஹே
ஸக்துமிவ தித உனா புனந்தோ யத்ர தீரா மனஸா
வாசமக்ரத அத்ரா ஸகாய: ஸக்யானி ஜானதே
பைத்ரஷாம் லக்ஷ்மீர்-நிஹிதா திவாசி
ஓம் ஸாந்தி: ஸாந்தி: ஸாந்தி:
Above text means:
Earth is used to represent planet as well as just land mass. The Bhumi Sukta begins with the origin of land (earth) from the waters, showing how she bears, carries and sustains all else: "The Earth is mother; The rain-giver is my father; may he shower on us blessings"! Earth in turn is "sustained by Heavenly Law." Particularly noteworthy is the way in which function, attribute and quality are fused together. She bears "all that has two legs, three, or four," she is the stage "where mortals sing and play," where altars are made, and therefore where Agni the fire-god resides. She is `patient', and she is "a vessel of gladness." A particularly lovely passage describes the fragrance of the earth, and how this emanates in different ways from plants, water, lotuses, animals, human beings and the gods.
Instill in us abundantly that fragrance, O Mother Earth, which emanates from you." Fragrance is invisible but unmistakable; this is why, in our own century, Gandhi speaks of spirituality through the image of fragrance as the quality which others recognize. There can be no lines with a stronger ecological message than these.
The stability and firmness of earth, of mountains and trees, are models for man. The grass which straightens its back after being trampled on (the image is mine) is a symbol of regeneration and courage. This recalls the way the bamboo is regarded with respect in China, personifying as it does resilience and patience.
Nature's beauty is an art of God. One sees invisible God through nature. Let us feel the touch of God's invisible hands in everything beautiful.
By the first touch of His hand rivers throb and ripple. When He smiles the sun shines, the moon glimmers, the stars twinkle, the flowers bloom.
By the first rays of the rising sun, the universe is stirred; the shining gold is sprinkled on the smiling buds of rose; the fragrant air is filled with sweet melodies of singing birds, the dawn is the dream of God's creative fancy." [Rig Veda]
The Buddha taught that respect for life and the natural world is essential. By living simply one can be in harmony with other creatures and learn to appreciate the inter connected lives. Compassion is the basis for a balanced view of the whole world and of the environment. The use of the "save and not waste" approach means that nothing in nature is spoiled or wasted. Ecology is rebuilt through the philosophy of Sarvodaya (uplift of all), which is based on loving kindness, compassionate action, and altruistic joy.
God Asks Us to Take Care of His Creation. Leviticus 25:23-24 - The land must not be sold permanently, because the land is mine and you are but aliens and my tenants. Throughout the country that you hold as a possession, you must provide for the redemption of the land. The Holy Spirit resides in all things. The Earth does not belong to Man; Man belongs to the Earth. "Do unto others as you would have them to unto you." We, all life forms are all connected.
Consumption driven economies
The consumption-driven society are worried if they can sustain high rates of consumption in an ever changing geo-political/economic environment. Leading economists determine the performance of a country in terms of consumption level and consumer dynamics. The underlying theory of a consumption-based economy is that progressively greater consumption of goods is economically beneficial. This theory is only partly true.
Production, not consumption, is the true source of wealth. Producers (businesses as opposed to governments) can accelerate the process of creating wealth for others to consume and finance future production.
Modern waste is fundamentally different from its predecessors. Waste began to increase in tonnage, gain in toxicity, and become more heterogeneous . About ninety-seven percent of waste produced in the US today is industrial solid waste during processes such as mining and mass agriculture. There is no land available for dumping food wastes and disposables used by food industry (paper, plastics, aluminum, textiles, and packaging).
Products were durable, easy to fix, and limited in variation. Opportunities for growth, and profit motives, led to disposability through planned obsolescence, single-use items, cheap materials, throw-away packaging, fashion, and conspicuous consumption. Production leads to environmental clean up, which in turn leads to more production. This is the endless loop, consuming more earth resources. It can not go on for ever.
Individual over-consumption is due to greed and businesses thrives on individual fear and greed.
The climate we have to change is the climate of greed, in which consumerism and profiteering can thrive.
Deforestation is clearing Earth's forests on a massive scale, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land. Forests still cover about 30 percent of the world. The world’s rain forests could completely vanish in a hundred years at the current rate of deforestation.
Deforestation has many negative effects on the environment. The most dramatic impact is a loss of habitat for millions of species. Seventy percent of Earth’s land animals and plants live in forests, and many cannot survive the deforestation that destroys their homes.
Deforestation also drives climate change. Forest soils are moist, but without protection from sun-blocking tree cover they quickly dry out. Trees also help perpetuate the water cycle by returning water vapor back into the atmosphere. Without trees to fill these roles, many former forest lands can quickly become barren deserts.
A more workable solution is to carefully manage forest resources by eliminating clear-cutting to make sure that forest environments remain intact. The cutting that does occur should be balanced by the planting of enough young trees to replace the older ones felled in any given forest.
Climate change is a reality.
Global warming make the whole world panic. It is the source of flooding and drought, desertification and loss of land. Climate change is caused by over-consumption of fossil fuels, loss of soil, and excessive herds of livestock. This emphasizes the importance of preventing environmental changes before they occur or, as in the case of climate change, slowing their progress once they've begun.
The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels
Many of the environmental problems our country faces today result from our fossil fuel dependence. These impacts include global warming, air quality deterioration, oil spills, and acid rain.
Fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas—But some energy costs are not included in consumer utility or gas bills, nor are they paid for by the companies that produce or sell the energy. These include human health problems caused by air pollution from the burning of coal and oil; damage to land from coal mining and to miners from black lung disease; environmental degradation caused by global warming, acid rain, and water pollution; and national security costs, such as protecting foreign sources of oil.
Since such costs are indirect and difficult to determine, they have traditionally remained external to the energy pricing system, and are thus often referred to as externalities. And since the producers and the users of energy do not pay for these costs, society as a whole must pay for them. But this pricing system masks the true costs of fossil fuels and results in damage to human health, the environment, and the economy.
One major advantage with the use of renewable energy is that as it is renewable it is therefore sustainable and so will never run out. Renewable energy facilities generally require less maintenance than traditional generators. Their fuel being derived from natural and available resources reduces the costs of operation. Even more importantly, renewable energy produces little or no waste products such as carbon dioxide or other chemical pollutants, so has minimal impact on the environment.
Major disadvantages are: difficult to generate the quantities of electricity; the reliability of supply; and current cost of renewable energy technology such has extremely large capital cost. Hydro power requiring dams also destroy forests and damage environment.
Nuclear power is the only large-scale energy-producing technology which takes full responsibility for all its wastes and fully costs this into the product. Unlike other industrial wastes, the level of hazard of all nuclear waste - its radioactivity - diminishes with time. But managing and disposing of radioactive (or other) waste to protect people and the environment, is still an issue to be solved.
What we need is Pollution free and safe automobiles. But industry is trying to sell automobiles with all possible gadgets, like mobile office and home theater, which burns lot of fossil fuels.
Aircraft, mainly military ones, consume lot of fossil fuels, damaging the ozone layer and even atmosphere in general. They account for sound pollution. Water transport is similar to air transport, pollutiong seas and rivers.
Clean air is essential to life and good health. Air pollutants carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and hydrocarbons are produced by fossil fuel combustion. They are all responsible for the white haze that can be seen over many cities or smog. Research shows that ozone and other scan reduce crop yields. All these fossil fuel use also produces particulates, including dust, soot, smoke, and other suspended matter, which are respiratory irritants. In addition, particulates may contribute to acid rain formation.
Water and Land Pollution
Production, transportation, and use of oil and coal can cause water pollution. Oil spills, for example, leave waterways and their surrounding shores uninhabitable for some time. Such spills often result in the loss of plant and animal life. Coal mining also contributes to water pollution. After the mining is completed, the land will remain barren unless special precautions are taken to ensure that proper topsoil is used when the area is replanted. Heated water, once returned to rivers or lakes, can upset the aquatic ecosystem.
Human Health and Quality of Life
Pollution in the air, water and soil poses a threat to human health, as well as the health of the greater environment that sustains us. Healthy environments also foster a stronger quality of life for communities. Green outdoor spaces encourage children to stay active, and the opportunity to explore natural ecosystems fosters a lifelong love of nature and a curiosity about the natural world. Adults also benefit from thriving ecosystems where they can enjoy the peacefulness, beauty and variety of the natural world and the recreational opportunities it provides. People may derive spiritual benefits from a healthy relationship with the natural world. A better quality of life on the individual level fosters healthy, happy communities. For example, when young people stay active in positive activities such as outdoor sports, they may not engage in harmful activities like drugs and crime, creating safer communities.
Nature is a complex creation with all it's living things. All living beings depend on nature, place where they can find food and live. Nature always connected with human life, giving many benefits for human life. Many things in this world that people do to show their respect to nature, should improve the situation. Let us put more respect acts and care to do many positive things to save nature.
An example of nature lover people
Bishnois are nature lover people and model environmentalists of India, following the teachings of their Guru Jambheshwar. Bishnoism is the most practical, simple, eco-friendly and caring Hindu sect in Thar desert of Rajasthan, India. This sect emphasizes love, peace, kindness, simple life, honesty, compassion, forgiveness, hard work, good moral character, and harmony among not only human beings but also with mother nature, wild animals and trees. Their teacher Jambheshwar avoided idol worship, unnecessary rituals and worshiping. Believe in karma, equal rights and one God (Vishnu, meaning existing in everything and every where, protector of all).
Amrita Devi, a Bishnoi woman, protested against King's men who were attempting to cut trees as cutting tree it was strictly prohibited in Bishnoi sect. The malevolent feudal party told her that if she wanted the trees to be spared, she should give them money as bribe. She said that she would rather give away her life to save the green trees. Saying these words, she offered her head. The axes which were brought to cut the trees, severed her head from the body. As soon as Maharaja learnt it, he ordered stopped of felling trees. By that time 363 Bishnois had already become martyrs. Honoring the courage of the Bishnoi community, Maharaja Abhay Singh, apologised for the mistake committed by his officials and issued a royal decree engraved on copper plate.
Time to time their faith was tested by rulers, poachers and others but Bishnois always protected the wild life even at the cost of their lives by braving the bullets. Nihal Chand Bishnoi (in 1996) sacrificed his life while chasing poaches to save life of black bucks. A film, Willing to Sacrifice, based on his story won the award for the Best Environment Film at the 5th International Festival of Films, TV and Video Programmes held at Bratislava, Slovakia.
Know your earth
Circumference at the equator 40,066 km
Circumference at the poles 39, 992 km
Diameter at the equator 12,753 km
Diameter at the poles 12,710 km
Estimated Weight (mass) 5940 billion billion tons- 5.94x10^21
Estimated Age 4.6 billion years
Surface Area 510,066,000 sq km
Land Area 148,647,000 sq km (29.1%)
Ocean Area 335,258,000 sq km
Total Water Area 361,419,000 sq km (70.9% 97% salt 3% fresh)
The earth orbits the Sun at 107,320 km per hour
The earth orbits the Sun every 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds
CONTINENTS OF THE WORLD
#1 Asia - 44,579,000 sq km
#2 Africa - 30,065,000 sq km
#3 North America - 24,256,000 sq km
#4 South America - 17,819,000 sq km
#5 Antarctica - 13,209,000 sq km
#6 Europe - 9,938,000 sq km
#7 Australia/Oceania - 7,687,000 sq km
OCEANS OF THE WORLD (by size)
Pacific 155,557,000 sq km
Atlantic 76,762,000 sq km
Indian 68,556,000 sq km
Southern 20,327,000 sq km
Arctic 14,056,000 sq km
Pacific Ocean 10,924 meters
Atlantic Ocean 9,219 meters
Indian Ocean 7,455 meters
Arctic Ocean 5,625 meters
TOP 10 TALLEST MOUNTAINS
Mount Everest 8850m (29035ft) Nepal/China
Qogir (K2) 8611m (28250ft) Pakistan
Kangchenjunga 8586m (28169ft) Nepal
Lhotse 8501m (27920ft) Nepal
Makalu I 8462m (27765ft) Nepal
Cho Oyu 8201m (26906ft) Nepal
Dhaulagiri 8167m (26794ft) Nepal
Manaslu I 8156m (26758ft) Nepal
Nanga Parbat 8125m (26658ft) Pakistan
Annapurna I 8091m (26545ft) Nepal
TALLEST MOUNTAINS (On Each Continent)
Mount Everest 8850m (29035ft) Asia
Aconcagua 6959m (22831ft) S. America
Mount McKinley 6194m (20320ft) N. America
Mount Kilimanjaro 5963m (19563ft) Africa
Mount Elbrus 5633m (18481ft) Europe
Puncak Jaya 4884m (16023ft) Oceania
Vinson Massif 4897m (16066ft) Antarctica
MAJOR RIVERS (By Length)
Nile, Africa (6,825 km)
Amazon, South America (6,437 km)
Chang Jiang (Yangtze), Asia (6,380 km)
Mississippi, North America (5,971 km)
Yenisey-Angara, Asia (5,536 km)
Huang (Yellow), Asia (5,464 km)
Ob-Irtysh, Asia (5,410 km)
Amur, Asia (4,416 km)
Lena, Asia (4,400 km)
Congo, Africa (4,370 km)
Mackenzie-Peace, North America (4,241 km)
Mekong, Asia (4,184 km)
Niger, Africa (4,171 km)
LARGEST COUNTRIES (by land mass)
Russia 17,075,400 sq km, (6,592,846 sq miles)
Canada 9,330,970 sq km, (3,602,707 sq miles)
China 9,326,410 sq km, (3,600,947 sq miles)
USA 9.166,600 sq km, (3,539,242 sq miles)
Brazil 8,456,510 sq km, (3,265,075 sq miles)
Australia 7,617,930 sq km, (2,941,283 sq miles)
India 2,973,190 sq km, (1,147,949 sq miles)
Argentina 2,736,690 sq km, (1,056,636 sq miles)
Kazakhstan 2,717,300 sq km, (1,049,150 sq miles)
Sudan 2,376,000 sq km, (917,374 sq miles)
LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD
Chinese Mandarin 1 billion +
English 512 million
Hindi 501 million
Spanish 399 million
Russian 285 million
Arabic 265 million
Bengali 245 million
Portuguese 196 million
Malay-Indonesian 140 million
Japanese 125 million
German 100 million
Korean 78 million
French 77 million
Chinese, Wu 77 million
Javanese 75 million
Chinese. Yue 71 million
Some Web site Links
There are many environmental organizations (intergovernmental, governmental or non-governmental) who publish and undertake activities to save environment. There are many web sites and paper publications. So, just few are listed below as as examples.
Administrator:NARA is a Consultant by profession and an Engineer by qualification. Nara holds an Engineering Masters degree and have worked 25 years for leading organizations.
Now working part time on country/technology research projects and Maintaining community Web sites.
Spending more time to pursue his interests on studying: ancient scriptures; maths & astronomy; physics; philosophy; history & culture and so on.